To conduct the housewarming ceremony according to Vastu principles or for any other auspicious work for that matter one needs to have a good knowledge of Panchang, Panchangam or Ephemeris(Almanac). “Pancha” means five and “Anga” mean organs/parts. The term Panchang or Panchangam refers to Hindu calendar and almanac.
The five parts of Panchang or Ephemeris
- Lunar Day(Tithi)
- Nakshatra or Constellation
The first constituent of Hindu Panchanga or Ephemeris is the Lunar day. This signifies the distance between the Sun and the Moon. One Lunar month is approximately 29 and a half days. The period from the first day after no moon to the full moon is termed as the bright half or Shukla Paksha. The period from the first day after the full moon to no moon is called Krishna Paksha. So the bright half starts from no moon to full moon or waxing of the moon whereas the dark half is from full moon to no moon or during the waning of the moon. Earth revolves around the Sun and the Moon around the Earth. During this, the Sun and Moon create various angles between them. When they make an angle of 0 degree its a No Moon day and when they make an angle of 180 degrees it is the Full Moon day. The duration between two full Moon days is called a Lunar month.
There are thirty lunar dates or tithis, of 12 degrees each (12×30 = 360 degrees).
A tithi indicates the moon’s separation from the sun. To obtain a Tithi one needs to subtract the longitude of the sun from the longitude of the moon, and divide the obtained value by twelve. The quotient plus one gives the number of Tithi for that particular day.
(Longitude of the Moon – Longitude of the Sun) /12=Q. Q is the quotient Q+1=Tithi)
The Tithis start from the 1st day of the bright half or Shukla Paksha.
Classification of Tithis
First, sixth and eleventh Tithis.
Second, seventh and twelfth
Third, eighth and thirteenth Tithis.
Fourth, ninth and fourteenth.
Fifth, tenth and the full moon day.
Auspicious Deeds that can be Performed on Each Tithi
First Tithi – The lord of this Tithi is fire. So marriages, travel, fasting, empowerment of idols, Vastu puja, housewarming, etc should be avoided on this day. Only fire-related work can be carried out on this day.
Second Tithi – The lord of second Tithi is Lord Brahma. Deeds that are somehow related to royalty, consecration ceremonies for idols in temples, marriage, travel, jewelry related work, etc can be carried out on this Tithi.
Third Tithi – The lord of this Tithi is Goddess Parvathi. All that can be done on the second day can be performed here too. Also, house warming ceremonies and anna praashan samskar can be carried out on this Tithi.
Fourth Tithi – Lord Ganesha is the lord of this Tithi. All kind of auspicious deeds should be avoided on this Tithi. This Tithi is related to fire, killing, imprisonment, weapon, poison, etc. This is a Rikta Tithi.
Fifth Tithi – The lord of this Tithi is Shesha Naga. All auspicious deeds can be performed on this Tithi except for giving loans. Loans become bad debts if given on this day.
Sixth Tithi – Lord Kartikeya is the Tithi lord. All auspicious deeds except related to travel, teeth, wood and pitra pooja can be done on this Tithi. Any work related to the war, jewelry, new cloth, etc can be done on this Tithi.
Seventh Tithi – Sun is the lord of this Tithi. Things that can be done in second, third and fifth Tithis should not be performed in the Seventh Tithi. Auspicious deeds should be avoided.
Eighth Tithi– Lord Shiva is the owner of this Tithi. Any work that is related to the war, Vastu, sculpture, reading and writing, ladies cosmetics and jewelry can be done on this Tithi.
Ninth Tithi- This Tithi is a Riktha. But as the owner of this Tithi is goddess Durga who is the mother to all, any auspicious work can be carried out.
Tenth Tithi – All things that can be done in the second, fifth, third and seventh can also be performed in this Tithi. Lord Yama(Kaal) is the owner of this Tithi.
Eleventh Tithi – Vishwadeva is the lord and all auspicious deeds can be performed.
Twelfth Tithi- Lord Vishnu is the owner of this Tithi and all auspicious and religious work can be done on this Tithi.
Thirteenth Tithi – All things that can be done in second, third, fifth and seventh can also be done here except marriage. Lord of this Tithi is Lord Kama.
Fourteenth Tithi– Lord Shiva is the owner. This is a Riktha Tithi and no auspicious deeds should be performed here.
Full Moon or Paurnima – Moon is the lord and work related to Yagya, health, Vastu, marriage, sculpture, jewelry, etc can be performed on this Tithi.
No Moon or Amavasya – The lord of this Tithi is Pitra. So all work which deals with the dead ancestors can be performed on this Tithi. All other auspicious works should be avoided.
Day or Vaara in Panchang
Following are the works that can be started and performed on that particular day.
Sunday – Administrative work, Royal celebrations, travel, Hawana, and Homa, Eating medicine, making weapons and other work related to gold, copper, silver, etc.
Monday – Agricultural and gardening work, learning music, Yagya and making jewelry.
Tuesday – Legal work, war, fire, wine and any other work that involves defeating an enemy can be done on this day.
Wednesday– Work that is related to education, knowledge, jewelry, and friendships.
Thursday– This is good for any kind of auspicious work.
Friday– All deeds that are related to enjoyment, entertainment, and luxury. Work that is related to precious stones and cosmetics, and celebrations.
Saturday– Storing wealth, entering a new house, weapon-related work, and servant related work.
Constellations And Panchang
They are 27 in number. Every constellation has four parts and a lord. Depending on the direction they face they are divided into 3 types.
1. Downward Facing –
PurvaFalguni, Purvashadha, Purva Bhadrapada, Magha, Ashlesha, Vishakha, Krittika, Bharani, and Moola are downward-facing constellations. Work that is related to earth or land like digging well, agriculture, etc can be performed in these constellations. Also, war-related work can be performed.
2. Upward Facing –
Construction of tall buildings, temples, flags and poles, religious ceremonies, etc can be carried out in these constellations. UttarFalguni, Uttarashadha, Uttara Bhadrapada, Pushya, Rohini, Shravana, Ghanishtha, and Shatbhishtha are the constellations in this type.
3.Slant Facing –
Constellation whose face is crooked or slanting falls in this category. These are Revati, Ashwini, Jyeshtha, Anuradha, Hasta, Chitra, Swati, Mrigishira and Punarvasu. Work that is related to planting trees, business, purchasing new vehicle, travel, etc can be performed in this constellation.
Half of a Tithi is called a Karana. A Tithi is 12 degrees. So Karna is 6 degrees. There are a total of 11 Karanas which are divided into 2 categories.
Stationary – Occur once a month. Kinstughna, Shakuna, Chatushpada, and Naga.
Movable – Repeat frequently. Bava, Balava, Kaulava, Taitila, Gargi, Vanija and Vishti etc fall in these categories.
I will discuss each Karana and their significance and also Yoga’s in the continued Panchanga post.